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Turku, Provincial Archives of Turku, Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter, Gummerus-collection, I.2. Taivassalon manuale


A fragmentary manuale / processionale (pt. II) with a later addition (pt. I)


Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici


I: Saec. XVI 2/4; II: Saec. XIV 2/2


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Paper (fols. 1–4) and parchment (fols. 5–17)




Provincial Archives of Turku
Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter
Gummerus-collection, I:2


Diocese of Turku

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Turku, Provincial Archives of Turku, Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter, Gummerus-collection, I.2. Taivassalon manuale
saec. XVI 2/4
?); II:
saec. XIV
(before 1391?),
diocese of Turku
A fragmentary
(pt. II) with a later addition (pt. I)
Part I: fols. 1–4.
Fols. ,
Genealogy of Jesus
, with notation (after
The Nyia Testamentit på Swensko af år 1526
, ed.
A. Andersson, Uppsala 1893, 13
Herren warj medt idher / Så och medt tinom anda. Tetta är boken åff Jhesu Cristi bördh, huilkin som är ... åff huilka är föddher Jhesus som kallas Christus.
Fol. is blank.
Part II: fols. 5–17,
fragment. In the litany (at fol. ) the first Scandinavian saint invoked is
, who is named directly after
; following him are
, and
is missing, which suggests a date for the fragment before her canonization in
Fols. , antiphons and directions for the Palm Sunday procession.
salutarem uictimam pater misit in mundum ... ...
chorus cantantem uersus
Agyos o theos.
Fols. , the blessing of the candle (
benedictio cerei
). Corresponds to
Manuale seu exequiale Aboense 1522
, ed. Martti Parvio, Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura: Helsinki 1980, 111–118
paschalia in quibus ille ... ... in honorem dei rutilans ignis accendit.
Hic accendatur
. Qui licet sit dimisus ... ... per omnia secula seculorum amen.
Fols. , the consecration of the baptismal font (cf.
Manuale seu exequiale Aboense
, 118–132
; the manuscript begins with the hymn
Rex sanctorum angelorum
, which the printed book has at the end of the service, at 131–132; also differences in the rubricated directions and the end of the service; also unlike in the printed manual, in the manuscript this section is not notated).
Hic descendat ad fontem
. Rex sanctorum angelorum ... ... et aquae baptismatis fiat in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti. Amen.
Fols. , , hymns for Easter-tide services.
Cum rex glorie christus infernum debellaturus intraret ... ... in tormentis alleluia-
Ad sancta communio
. Salue festa dies ... ... cuncta create precem. Salue.
Ad introitum
. Sedit angelus ad sepulcrum ... ... cum eo surrexit alleluia. Sequitur oratio. [The prayer has been erased] ... nobis. Ad uesperas, kyrieeleison ... suscipere mereamur. In reditu ad ... christus resurgens ex mortuis ... nobiscum dicentes. Quod | |
. In resurrectione tuo christe ... resurrectionis gratiam consequimur.
Antiphona de domina
. Regina celi letare ... nobis deum alleluia.
. Ora pro nobis.
. Gratiam tuam quesumus domine.
Fols. , antiphon for rogational processions (the same as in
Helsinki, National Library, F.m. VII.77
, fol. 2r–v, until
Cum iocun
], at which the fragment terminates)
In diebus rogationum ad processionem antiphona
. Exurge domine adiuua ... ... cum gaudio alleluia. Kyrieleison qui precioso sanguine ... Sancta uirgo uirginum quesumus almum. Kyrieleison|
Additions: on fol. , original indication of where to cense has been moved forward and the directions altered in a
saec. XV
hand; on fol. prayers for the Virgin in two
saec. XV
Inside the back cover, a
saec. XV
hand has added a chant with notation.
'p***tans igitur lauacio salutari ...'
Paper (fols. 1–4) and parchment (fols. 5–17)
17 folios.
17,5cm × 24,5-25cm
Modern foliation in pencil in the upper right-hand corner of the recto-side.
; (II–2)
+ (VI–1)
Lacunae between fols. 6 and 7 and between 15 and 16.
Folia seem to have gone missing early on, as the rather haphazard structure of the manuscript shows signs of early repairs. The first quire of pt. II was made by pasting together two singletons, and it seems that the last quire was constructed by pasting two bifolia (or pairs of singletons) at both ends of a quaternion (from which one folio has been excised, apparently intentionally, between fols. 14 and 15). Aside from the makeshift binding, unlikely to be the work of any well-established or well provisioned workshop, the book is in fairly good condition, with only some dirt on the folia.
I: text and notation in one column on six lines, ruled in ink; II: text and notation in one column on eight lines (or text only on as many as thirty lines), ruled in hard-point (for the folia with notes) and ink (for the folia with only text, and all text lines on folia with notes), pricking for each line in the outer margins of the leaves.
Pt. I: Gothic cursive of
saec. XVI
; pt. II: Gothic textualis of
saec. XV
Pt I: decadent square notation on four black lines; II: square notation on four red lines.
Pt. I: The initials of chants have been drawn in ink and touched in red. Pt. II: Plain red lombards for the beginnings of chants; rubrics in red.
Apparently medieval binding of light brown leather over boards, with raised bands and one clasp (defective). Strips of parchment have been used to reinforce the binding of pt. I.
A rather makeshift manual prepared for use in the
diocese of Turku
, and had found its way to
by the
later half of sixteenth century
. Somewhat earlier, but possibly already in
, a few leaves containing the genealogy of Jesus set to music were added to it.
Inside the front cover, apparently as pen trials, in a hand of saec. XVI–XVII: ‘Töfsala bok’.
The manuscript may have already been in bad shape at this point, but it was found in its present condition by
J. Gummerus
in the
early twentieth century
in the archives of the
Turku Cathedral Chapter
. It may have arrived there
as the result of the chapter’s request that parishes send older materials for examination. The materials were in some cases returned to their parishes (this happened to the books from Tammela now in the library of Åbo Akademi), but at least some remained at Turku and survived the great fire that destroyed much of the city in 1827 (
Schalin 1946, 6 n. 2
, cites the circulars of the chapter, no. 237, of 5 November 1828, and no. 264, of 20 June 1833, which indicate that several manuscripts that had been sent to Turku as requested had not been collected and had become disordered in the fire, and were now kept in the archbishop’s household).
J. Gummerus, ‘Eräs kirjalöytö Turun tuomiokapitulin arkistosta’,
Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran pöytäkirjat 10
(1910), 81–123, at 85–88.
I. Taitto,
Documenta Gregoriana. Latinalaisen kirkkolaulun lähteitä Suomessa
, Helsinki 1992, 321–325.
Jesse Keskiaho
Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici
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