Nimeke

Helsinki, National Library, C.III.19. Codex Westh

Kuvaus

Lutheran manuale, missale and other
liturgical and pastoral materials in Finnish and
Swedish.

Julkaisija

Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici

Aikamääre

1533; 1550-1599
Saec. XVI 2/3 (c. 1546); Saec. XVI 2/2 (1550-1599)

Oikeudet

Images:

CC0
To the extent possible under law, the person who associated CC0 with this work has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

Concerning all other rights see Terms of Use.

Formaatti

Paper

Kieli

Finnish
Swedish

Identifiointitunnus

Helsinki
National Library
C.III.19

Kattavuus

Rauma

Download TEI file
Helsinki, National Library, C.III.19. Codex Westh
Saec. XVI 2/3 (c. 1546)
;
saec. XVI
2
(?)
;
Rauma
(prov.
Vehmaa
)
Lutheran manuale
,
missale
and other
liturgical and pastoral materials
in
Finnish
and
Swedish
.
Fol. [0]r
, mostly blank staves (2×4) and text that has been later struck over: ‘
Herre fforb
Herra Herra Armahdha cule meitä’
A hand of
saec. XIX
, in ink, has added ’Finsk messa och handbok’, and, in a slightly younger hand over this title: ‘Käsikirja 1546’.
Fols. ,
kyriale
, in
Swedish
.
[H]erre forbarma tigh ... ...
De dominicis diebus cantus
... ...
Jn tempore paschali
... Gudz fadrens herligheet. Amen.
Fols. are empty (fols. have blank staves).
Fols. ,
sequentiarium
in
Finnish
, unfinished; from , ‘miehudhen otti ia’, only blank staves.
[
Sancti spiritus assit
] Pyhän henghen armo ... ...
In Crastino Pentecosten Sequentia
[
Veni sancte spiritus et emitte
]. Twle Pyhä hengi tänn ... ...
De creatione lapsu seu De Redemptione hominis
. Jnhimisen wiheläitzydhest tuleu ... ...
De die Ascensionis Domini Sequentia
[
Rex omnipotens
] CAickiualdias kuningas tänäpäiuän ... ... (in a different hand:)
Laetabundus
] Caicki christitytt iloitzeuat ... ... (in another hand:) [
Victimae paschali laudes
] Päsiäisen kijtos vffria ... [
Victimae paschali laudes
, another translation] Jesus Christus ombi ollut ... ... [
Versus
] Christus
nous yles
on ylesnosnu ... Iumalal kijtost veisatkam kyrieleijson.
Fols. have blank staves only.
, title-page.
Käsikirja, josa castesta ja muista christilisistä cappaleista \toimitetan/ caickein kyllen, mutta erinomaisesti kircon esimiesten tarpelinen. Suomen kielen vlgos pandu, Anno domini
1546
[and the letters MMW surrounding the title anticlockwise].
, register.
Registeri eli osotus
. 1 Castesta bladhisa 1 ... 9 Messu Suomen kielen 48.
Fols. ,
manuale.
Castesta
. Ensin kysyken pappi ...
Avioskeskyn Säty, quinga ylkä ia morssian ychten annetan ia uichijten
... ...
Coska waimo kijrkon jodhatetan otetan lapsen ialkeen nijn pitäy tämän ruckouxen luetaman
... ...
Qwinga sairahita etzitähän opetetan ja tarpet annetahan
...
Ennen quin Rumis ulgos cardanolt kannetan
...
Qvinga Rumis haudhatan
...
Quinga nijnnen cansa pita techtaman
Jotca hwkatan ... ... ia eij ansaittuta colemata, nin quin Röffuäri.
Fols. , litany and other prayers with versicles.
Letaniae Eli julkiset ruckouxet
. Kyrie eleijson Herra armadha ... ... Hänen laupiuxensa on ijancaickinen. Ruckoilkam. O Herra Jumala taiualinen Jsä ... ...
Alia oratio
... ...
Alia oratio pro pace
... Kijtos olkon Jumala ijancaickisesta, Amen. τέλος.
Fols. ,
missale
in
Finnish
, partly notated.
Messu somen kielen pidhetän tällä taualla
. Ensin coska pappi ja cansa ... Nimen Jsän Ja Poian ia Pyhän Hengen, Amen. Loppu.
Fols. , originally blank. A dismissal, a hymn (after
Martin Luther
’s
Verleih uns Friden gnädiglich
), two antiphons and a prayer (the last item not notated) in
Finnish
have been added (in one or two different hands, on separate occasions).
Täsä oletta tö nyt ... Mengättä Jumalan Rawhan, Amen. Suo Jumala meille laupiasti, rauha ... sine ainoa Herra. O Herra Jumala ... pacanaitten pällä. Anna meille rawha ... ... wärintekoinna ielken. Rukoilkam. Caickiwaldias Jumala ia ... Saman sinun racas etc.
Fols. ,
kyriale
, in
Finnish
.
De Sancto Spiritu
. H[erra armadha] ... ...
In Summis Festis
... ...
In Festis Duplicibus
...
In Festis Paschalibus
... ... jsän Jumalan
kirckaudes
\herraudhes/, Amen.
Fols. , a
funeral responsory
in
Finnish
, notated.
[
Clementissime Domine
] Caickein laupiain Herra Jesu ... meidhen synneisten pällen, etc.
Fols. , three
introitus
-chants, for Trinity and the feasts of the Holy Cross and All Saints, in
Finnish
.
Tässä Noudhatteleu Monicahdhoij Jntroituxia Se on Mesun alku weisuija Ensin De Trinitate offitium
. Hyuesti siugnattu olkon ...
Aliud offitium De cruce
...
Jn Aliud Gaudeamus etc
. ... caunihisti kiittämän, Cwnnia.
Fol. 100
is blank.
Fols. ,
Urbanus Rhegius
,
Sieluin vahuistos
(an anonymous
Finnish translation
of
Seelenn ärtzney für gesund und und krancken zu diesen gefährlichen zeyten
,
1529
, probably from the
Swedish
translation
Sielens tröst
).
Sieluin vachuistos lohutos ia läkitys aina kyllän keluolinen, mutta caicken enimmän cooleman tuskas
. Rumilinen sairaus ia se rumilinen cvolema ... mutta anna sinun cansas ijancaickisesti elä, Amen.
Fols. are blank.
Fols. , the hymn
Serua deus
and its Swedish translation
Bevara oss Gudh
(after Luther’s
Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort
); notated.
Serua Deus uerbum tuum ... ... arbiter victorie et bellipotens. Beuara oss Gudh ... Lätt see tin macht O Herre.
Fol. is blank.
Fols. , Eucharist responsory in Finnish.
Atrioitzi ihesus ia ... ...ia aina ia ijanccaickisesta, Amen.
Fols. ,
antiphonarium
/
breviarium
-materials in
Finnish
.
(
Christe qui lux es et dies
, selection, without notation:) Etteij rascas vnhi vputtais ... pyhäsa hengess Eläpi, Amen.
Versi
: Ketke meite Herra ... (
Salua nos Domine uigilantes
:) Awta meite herra waluoisamme ... (
O Rex gloriose
) O Kunnian Kuningas sinun pyheis seas ... Waluo herra rakas Taiualinen Jsä ...
Jtem
Cule meitä pyhä herra ...
Jtem
Etzittele Herra Laupias ...
Resp
. Jumalan olkon kijtos ia cunnia ...
Salue
[
Regina
]. Terue Jesu Laupiudhen kuningas ...
Prosae
[
Virgo mater ecclesiae
]. Sinä Kriste, seuracunnan pä ... ...
Ruckoilkam
. O Herra Jesu Christe ... [
Nos qui vivimus
] Me quin eläme aina me kitäkäm Herra. (Ps. 114, only the first verse notated:) Cosca Jsraelin canssa ... (Ps. 115) Ej meille Herra eij meille Herra ... ... testäaighasta nin ijancaickisen. Cunnia olcon Jsän ja Poijan ... ia ijancaickisesta ijancaickisehen Amen.
,
Sanctus
-trope
Tibi laus
in
Swedish
without notation.
Tigh ware loff och prijs ... heligh hån siunger tigh.
Fol. is empty.
Fols. a
herbarium
against fever, in Swedish.
Qui longa febre conflictatur, utatur succo ansintij saccaro temperato, statim leuabitur. Contra febres
. Tagh 1 lods eller ... Thz hielper väll emott skelffuan.’
Fols. are blank.
, notes on debts in Swedish.
Item til minnelse at iag haffuer giffuit til lucas olleff anno dominij 47 ... födhe iagh hond 3 oor.
Fol. is empty.
Fol. , the
Credo
-hymn
Wij
troo
in
Finnish
(
Martin Luther
’s
Wir glauben all an einen Gott
, translated from
Olaus Petri
’s Swedish
Uij tro uppå alzmechtig gud
of
1530
;
Kurvinen 1929, 254
), without notation.
Wij troo
. Me vskoma iumalan pale ... iumalan valdacunnassa, Amen
is blank.
, the hymn
Ny rukkoilkam sitä Pyhää Henkiä
in Finnish (
Martin Luther
’s
Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist
, from
Olaus Petri
’s
Nw bidie wij then helga and
of
1536
;
Kurvinen 1929, 254
), without notation.
Ny ruckolcam sitä pyhä Hengiä ... olen silloin Herra meidhen cansan Kyrieleison.
, notes on debts in Swedish.
Debita Mathiae Pnsa
[?]. Michael wasarais ... aff [g]amalt silffuer, en belte.
, ownership marks,
probationes pennae
, and a will.
The will ‘
Anne Tykis
[?] Til S. Katerine Capel vax ... kirkioherren j mark[?] denarii[?]’.
The contents of the book are exhaustively transcribed and discussed in
Häkkinen (2012)
and
Tuppurainen (2012)
.
Paper
143+3 fols.
13,5cm × 18cm (11-12cm × 7,5-15,5cm)
Original foliation (1–62, cf. the register on fol. ) in ink near the upper right-hand corner of the written area on fols. . Modern foliation in pencil in the upper right-hand corners of recto sides skips the first folio ([0]) of the manuscript, so that the first quire consists of one unnumbered folio and the first six numbered folia. Fols. , and have been marked, in a hand of
saec. XIX
, in the upper right-hand corner, ’30, ‘40’ and ‘50’, respectively; this is possibly related to the rebinding of the book.
2
[a–b]
+ (IV–1)
6
+ 2II
14
+ 14IV
126
+ (IV–1)
133
+ IV
141
+ I
143
+ 1
[c]
.
The manuscript is in fairly good shape, with some staining to the leaves. Leaves towards the end and beginning of the book have understandably sustained some more wear; they have been extensively restored (esp. fols. 142–143).
Pirinen (1962, 93)
dated the manuscript in the second half of the 1540’s based on his identification of the watermark found on fols. [A] and 1–132 with
Briquet’s no. 10972
. Maria Kallio has recently re-examined the watermarks and concluded that they cannot in fact be identified any catalogued watermarks (2012, 17–18; on the structure of the codex also at 15–16).
text in one column on 5–28 lines (notation on 6 to 8 lines), mostly not ruled (the exceptions are fols. 1–10, , , with two lines marking the side margins [= vertical bounding lines], always with staves).
Several (5–8?) hands writing varieties of Gothic Cursive and Hybrida. Textualis (with parts in Hybrida) used for (most) rubrics in the
manual
and
missal
(see fols. , , , , , , , cf. ), which appears to be the work of one scribe, possibly
Mathias Westh
himself. Kallio suggests that the same hand writes on fols. 134–136, 141, 143, and with a couple of other hands on fols. (cf.
Kallio 2012, 18–26
). Judging by the script, fols. , may have been copied somewhat later than the manual-missal; the notation on five lines on fols. may also suggest this (see
Tuppurainen 2012, 89
).
Decadent square notation on four black lines, and on fols. on five black lines.
Monochromatic pen-drawn lombards or gothic versals of varying quality used for the initials of chants, rubrics distinguished by script if at all. The only use of colour is found on fol. , where a part of the baptismal formula has been copied in badly faded red ink.
A
nineteenth-century
quarter leather binding of cardboard. The front cover has the University Library’s stamp in gold, with the legend ‘Otium sapientiae, 1761’ (the year is not related to the date of the binding). The covers are worn and detached from the binding; the legend in gold on the back of the cover, ‘Käsikirja 1546’, has been rendered illegible. The manuscript has been separated from the printed Manual and Mass of 1541 in the 19th century (see the notice on fol. [b]v). Fols. [a–c] have probably been added on this occasion.
A liturgical miscellany prepared perhaps for the personal use of
Mathias Westh
, probably to a large extent by himself. The manual-missal (fols. ) has clearly formed a self-contained unit, but its relation with the other parts of the codex is harder to judge. Some of the other hands may be somewhat later, but it seems that
Urbanus Rhegius
’s text has been copied by the main scribe of the manual-missal in collaboration with one or two other scribes. Kallio suggests that
Westh
had some of his students assist him in copying (
Kallio 2012, 27
). Some time after Westh’s death in
1549
the book found its way from
Rauma
to the nearby
Vehmaa
church, where it was preserved but apparently little used, until it was taken, probably in the nineteenth century, to
Helsinki
and what is now the
National Library of Finland
.
The title page of the manual-missal (fol. ) has the initials M(M)W and the date
1546
. The list of debts on fol. contains the date
[15]47
. The ownership markings on fol. (both struck over: ‘Mathiae Joannis westh Codex’ and ‘Mathie Johannis Codex’) probably identify the man behind the initials on fol. : the chaplain and schoolmaster of Rauma,
Mathias Westh
(d.
1549
). The persons named in the list of debts on fol. lived in the area of Rauma (see
Kallio 2012, 12
). The manuscript has previously been bound together with a copy of the
Swedish Manual and Mass
of 1541, which has also belonged to
Mathias Westh
(initials MW on the first folio). In addition, the printed book carries the ownership mark of
Vehmaa church
. It (and thus the present manuscript which accompanied it) is found in the surviving
seventeenth-century
inventories of Vehmaa church, but not in the nineteenth-century list, maintained between
1837 and 1875
.
The manuscript has been rebound for what is now the
National Library of Finland
between 1829 and 1866
. It may have been brought to the library by students gathering antiquities for the
Finnish Literature Society
(
Kallio 2012, 13
). Inside the front cover, on fol.
[a]r
, fol.
[c]v
, and inside the back cover there are (three different) blue stamps of the University Library (Manuscript department). The shelfmark, ‘C.III.19’, has been written in pencil on
fol. [c]v
and
inside the back cover.
Kaisa Häkkinen ed., Codex Westh.
Westhin koodeksin tekstit
(Wanhan Suomen arkisto, vol. 5), Turku 2012.
Maria Kallio, ’Westhin koodeksin kodikologiaa’, in Kaisa Häkkinen ed.,
Tutkimuksia Westhin koodeksista
(Turun yliopiston suomen kielen ja suomalais-ugrilaisen kielentutkimuksen oppiaineen julkaisuja, vol. 2), Turku 2012, 10–28.
P. J. I. Kurvinen,
Suomen virsirunouden alkuvaiheet v:een 1640
(Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seuran toimituksia, vol,. 180), Helsinki 1929.
Kauko Pirinen,
Turun tuomiokapituli uskonpuhdistuksen murroksessa
(Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran toimituksia 62), Helsinki 1962.
Erkki Tuppurainen ed.,
Codex Westh. Westhin koodeksin kirkkolaulut
(DocMus-tohtorikoulun julkaisuja, vol. 2), Helsinki 2012.
Cataloguer
Jesse Keskiaho
Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici
Creative Commons BY 4.0

Social Bookmarking